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Film and Music:
The Impact of Emerging Technologies on Composer

by Faruk Ceviz

ABSTRACT


In recent years, the developments in music technology has reached a point where film music composers can produce an orchestral score in the digital domain with stunning realism. The dynamism of new technology is transforming the craft of the composer by merging composition and production skills. Dealing with current tools and techniques is resulting in the emergence of a new type of ‘hybrid composer’ (Tingen; 1998) who practices these ‘crossover’ skills.

This essay explores how composers' tools and techniques work in a modern film music production, a 'complexity' that, I will discuss, is imposed by the current sound technology; that redefines the meaning of composing by merging various professional skills under one form of practice. 

 CONTENT

 INTRODUCTION

 COMPOSITIONS

 2.1 The Door - ready made phrases, clusters, dynamics & their integration 

 2.2 Dark Glass - physically modelled instruments

 2.3 The Lost Book - advanced tempo operation & quantisation

 2.4 The Island

 2.4.1 The Refugees - sampling & manipulation of audio

 2.4.2 The Island - advanced sequencing techniques

 2.4.3 The Book - virtual space-reverb

 2.4.4 Wound - mixing and mastering

 CONCLUSION

INDEX

 BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. INTRODUCTION

What has changed, since Max Steiner's epic score of the 1933 version of King Kong, regarding the true compositional technique of film music production and cinematic sound? Beginning in the fifties, classical film scoring was under the shadow of jazz and pop influence for twenty years. However John Williams’s score for Jaws (1970) was a return to the epic sound of classical score that shared the musical language of Wagner (Kalinak, 1992). The first remarkable composer who broke this tradition was Hans Zimmer who blended electronic and acoustic sounds by using synthesiser to create a ‘distinctive sonic character’ (Wherry, 2002; pp.50) devoted to a particular film. Zimmer’s innovative composition technique, that has constructed the foundation of today’s electronic scoring, traces back to Stockhausen, in the late 1950s, when the electronic music was ‘first conceived in the mind of the composer, then written down and finally realised in sound’ (Brindle, 1977; pp.104). However, current music technology offers new possibilities that might affect how we compose music for film. Not only is composing with pen and paper being taken over by notation programmes, but also acoustic instruments are being substituted with virtual instruments, listening to a live performance is being substituted with the instant playback of a multi track sequencer, virtuosity and intimacy of a performer is being replaced with MIDI expressiveness, and so on. In summary, ‘writing and producing is the same place’ as Zimmer states in an interview. This means composing, performing, production and occasionally sound engineering could be accomplished simultaneously in the process of creating an electronic score. In addition, Ramshaw (2006) claims that the changes in composition caused by use of digital tools ‘blur the distinction between these processes’. 

At this stage it is essential to understand that film music production has always been a platform where art and technology develop together dialectically. Braun (2002; pp.9-10) refers to Theodor Adorno suggesting ‘technology has gradually penetrated to the heart of the work of art itself. It has ceased to be something external to its ‘inner meaning’: the ‘interior’ and ‘exterior’ produce each other alternatively and mutually.’ This project will contribute to this dialectic through the analysis of the scores I composed and produced for various moving images by using Digital Audio Workstation (DAW) and virtual instruments. Identifying the skills and techniques used in the scores, I will examine the pragmatic and aesthetic concerns over electronic scoring. In this short essay it has been impossible to give more than an outline sketch of this massive field. My approach, however, has been highly selective, focusing on a particular technique for each cue addressing the strengths and weaknesses of the phases towards the end-product. Having said that, I employed these techniques throughout the project simultaneously. 
2. COMPOSITIONS 

2.1 The Door

“Making music with digital samplers and prerecorded samples of world music instruments and phrases is, fundamentally, an art of appropriation” - Lysloff 

The Door is an animation by Pascal Champion, for which I experimented various scoring techniques e.g. theme variation and Micky-Mousing. The most challenging exercise in this cue was the integration of prerecorded audio samples of orchestral instruments or ensembles such as sets of phrases, articulations and effects into the composition. The use of these elements are forming only a fraction of the score being mostly inspirational and supportive, as in Dark Glass. However the same technic is used in Garp: The Refugees in a significantly different way by elaborating and manipulating the sound recorded by myself. 

Lacking any dialogue or ambient-sound the animation suggests the music functions as the narrator and mirrors the sequence of actions that form the overall unity and continuity. In this respect composing a continuous wall-to wall score suits well to the character of The Door. Having inspired by the cartoon music of Golden Age of Hollywood composers such as Carl Stalling (tr1) and Scott Bradley (tr2), I intended to compose an orchestral score in which the score itself serves both as background music and sound effects. For example, the short runs in woodwinds, accents in percussions and arpeggiation in harp emphasise the change of motions - such as movement of the elevator, opening and closing of the door with objects and creatures flowing in-and-out constantly while piano and string parts act as the core of the score.

The narrative takes place in a fantasy world of animation. It is about a battle between a male character and a door that he cannot manage to get through along with the ambiguous chain of actions. Is the ‘live’ door itself represented as a metaphor for a ‘gate’ to the unknown, or perhaps to the source of great frustration? However music compliments to this uncanny narrative with ambivalent tonality, parallel ephemeral modulations and semi dissonant harmonic structure. Pascal’s animation style appears to be loose and sketchy that is driven by colours. This is reflected by the humanised quantisation and tempo operation technics which I addressed in chapter 2.3 broadly. Having a white background throughout the animation, Pascal imposes the abstract spatial character immediately. As the main character with purple jacked, hat and handbag approaches to the door, two-bar-phrase on the piano suggests the drama before it occurs. When he knocks on the door it appears to be an ordinary day, but the audience realises soon that the cascade of troubles, in a comic sense, are waiting for him. 

Mobirise
The primary concept of the animation is framed as a combination of ambiguous circumstances with mysterious, magical, funny and tragic nature and accompanied by the fragments of emotions e.g. wonder, frustration, stubbornness, anger, victory and defeat. The score on the other hand is centred around the manipulation of ready made phrases, clusters, dynamics and their integration into the score. The use these creates a palette which is unique to this score and plays inspirational role in developing the harmonic language. Besides they help achieving realistic score as well as emphasising the motion in the animation better.

The solo violin part, in bars 68-71, is a good example for the use of advanced sample instruments and method of orchestral simulation. With this particular solo part I used sample instruments produced by LA scoring strings which reserves various string articulations and bowing techniques simultaneously e.g portemento and vibrato. It also comprises the accompanying scripts such as legato, tuning, trill, delay and humanisation that enabled me to produce expressive and realistic string melodies. In this respect the use of this particular sample instrument worked mainly as a medium to express the musical language of the score based on my previous experience in playing violin.

Nevertheless, the way the pre-recorded samples are superimposed and integrated into the composition varies and requires traditional knowledge of harmony and melody as well as production skills. Digital audio recording and sampling technology have made it easier to employ fragments of sounds, phrases or sound textures in music production. However this is not a new concept and it’s origin goes back to the musique concrète time when the use of sampled sound was seen as an artistic development. Pioneered by Pierre Schaeffer, the musique concrète is a ‘montage’ (Brindle, 1977; pp.100) of live sounds subjected to manipulating or modification to create a composition. Inevitably, making music with audio recordings has currently become more sophisticated with digital samplers since early 1980s. However my favourite profound example of blending orchestra and sampled sound is rooted in concert music of Heiner Goebbels, Suite For Sampler and Orchestra, Chaconne, Cantor Loops. In 2000, Goebbels composed this contemporary piece by putting the 1920s and 30s Jewish Cantor recordings together with acoustic orchestra (tr3). Under the influence of Goebbels, I composed my first piece Wareast in 2004, blending various live recordings with electronic orchestra (tr4). The technique I used in this particular work helped me to construct and develop the composition in and around various acoustic improvisations leaving the acoustic performance mostly untouched. Similarly The Door carries the same principle.  

While the sophisticated sounds are achieved with the sampling technology, it is however criticised for producing non-controllable sounds which cannot be shaped or modified in real-time through controller devices (Ang and Shean, 2000; pp.1). This statement is no longer valid as the sound libraries allow better and more complex use of sound sources bringing new inspirations to the composer and open innovative ways to manipulate and implement (fabricate) these sources. 

2.2 Dark Glass

The Dark Glass is a very interesting psychological micro-drama about an unclear impression of half-remembered childhood memories of a hypnotised woman. As portrayed by the director, Clio Barnard, ‘the film is a shot on a mobile phone camera to accentuate a feeling of intimacy and immediacy. ‘The flickering nature of the footage also emphasises the film’s uncanny, otherworldly quality.’

Comprising the character of both documentary and fiction, the film, in particular, suggests the subjectivity of the recollection of childhood memories of a patient. Clio deliberately had no music to the drama. Nevertheless I proposed to compose music for the Dark Glass and her positive response to the draft score was an exciting start for the project.

The visual and the narrative of the film are arranged independently and establish an ambiance of contrast. Happy mood of visual and ambient sounds; running and laughing kids, sound of animals, mother and backyard of a countryside house, are companied with the controversial dialogue between psychologist and the hypnotised patient.  

The score for the Dark Glass presents a freedom for experimental approach to the manipulation of sounds and dissonant harmonic texture that evokes ambiguity. I wrote a piece for Piano and orchestra and practiced underscoring technique to enhance and intensify the narrative. My intension with this score is to elaborate the two prominent notions of the drama; the ‘vague memories of childhood’ mirrored with simple tune on the piano and the ‘psychological complexity of adulthood’ expressed with dissonant harmonic texture. The mood of these contrasting notions are expressed through the advanced programming and sound design that played an important role for the development of harmonic, rhythmic and melodic structures. With the main theme on the piano, as seen in figure 1, I initially experimented on sound manipulation with physically modelled acoustic piano; Pianoteq. 
Mobirise
The flexibility of this instrument facilitates producing
Fig.1 real and innovative piano sounds by modification and variation of damper noise, hammer hardness and microphone positioning. Throughout the cue, the timbre of the piano is altered by sound manipulation in parallel with the harmonic and melodic variations forming the overall unity. Similar experiment can be seen in Jerry Goldsmith’s score, IL Miracolo - Miracle (2009) in which damped-string of piano are plucked with fingers producing an interesting sound texture (tr5). This exercise for the Dark Glass provided astonishing multi dimensional timbral array that is associated with mental imaginary and emphasised the relationship between music and film psychology. Furthermore, it brought intimacy and individuality to the score and stimulated my creativity. For instance, elaborating the microphone position in conjunction with the spacious reverb setting provided the depth and dreamlike sound texture. Meanwhile the use of simplistic pulse and lack of accuracy in quantisation for the opening theme is associated with the immaturity / naiveness of a child. 

Tempo variations and regenerated tonalities - especially in bars 25, 31 and 52 - carry the characteristics of fluidity and distinctively depend on the increasingly expanding surreal narrative. This darkening of the atmosphere is compounded by using multisampled and clustered sounds that broaden the perspective of music. However, clustered sounds and non-traditional playing techniques are difficult to achieve in electronic scores. In this respect, Symphobia, a new generation of orchestral sample library, allowed me to create custom sounds that form inspirational portion of harmonic and rhythmic development of the composition. I believe elaborating the mood with harmonic and tempo variations in conjunction with the clustered sounds are highly inspirational forming the segments of compositional development.

2.3 The Lost Book

“The technology does not create the music on its own; it must be constructed skilfully” - Paul Sellars 

The Lost Book is a BAFTA nominated, innovative animation series. It is about a journalist, Aileen, and his dog, Watson, who attempt to solve the crime of a stolen book. The Scottish Chamber Orchestra announced a soundtrack competition in 2009 and I took the opportunity to compose music for this interactive animation. After analysing the original score performed by SCO, I found the elaboration of tempo and late back pulse striking. Thus I decided to focus on tempo operation along with the quantisation for my composition.  

The score comprises four sections all glued together; Main Title, Conversation with Mum, Investigation and the End Title. I aimed to compose energetic and action driven cues for the main and end titles with subtle orchestral arrangements to accomplish dynamism and punctuality. Middle sections however serve as underscore to the scenes and are structured with irregular time signatures. The Main Title is in C minor and formed with various passing chords; E flat minor and B minor. Each passing chord is able to shift the mysterious sense that is associated with the ‘stolen book’ and supplies forward motion for adventurous action quality.  

Driven from the narrative, the tempo is slightly varied throughout the cue and plays a significant role in bridging the four sections. Seeking to provide a rhythmic realism in the score, precise control of the tempo also varies depending on the sequencing technique and needs accurate operation as this will effect the synchronisation between the arrangement and the image. Regardless of the genre of the scene, a MIDI performance can be captured with or without metronome. Although both methods can provide strong musical results, it seems that recording with metronome works well by capturing the performance in its best level. Then any performance mistake can be corrected by applying minimum quantisation. Eventually an ‘aesthetic balance between human performance and technical perfection’ (Davis and Jones, 1990; pp.386) can be achieved. The viola solo in bars 2-9 is a good example for this operation.

At the end of the Main Tittle, the tempo slows down, in bars 20-25, to prepare for next section, Conversation with Mum. Then the sound texture becomes humorous with various time signature changes and articulations that underscore the witty dialogue between Aileen and his mum. For this part I preferred recording the pizzicato strings without a metronome and applied quantisation when needed retaining the original feelings of the performance. The problem with this method is that beats, bars and time signature have to manually itemised for the sequencing process. Once these elements are identified, the tempo track of the sequences produces quite varied rhythmic pulse as seen in the figure 2.
Mobirise
Following this is a soft piano riff that slows the tempo down and prepares for the next section; Investigation. The timbre shifting from a mellow character to unhappy and curious state resembles the various moods of the ‘inv’.The music ends with similar character of the opening but simplified version.  

Advanced tempo operation and quantisation of the MIDI performance are the foundation of effective sequencing techniques that intensify the authenticity in digital scoring. Furthermore, today’s DAWs could execute both operations in great accuracy and even more expressive way, but, on the other hand, require considerable amount of time and practice. Additionally, the excessive use of quantisation may lead to artificial sounding of tempo as human perception of pulse is sensitive to ‘regular recurring’ and ‘equally accented’ beats (Meyer, 1956; pp.102) which do not exist in nature. However the irony at this point is that, in acoustic music, the intention is to achieve a great accuracy in tempo while, in digital environment, it is intentionally made imperfect to bring it closer to the human perception, even though it could be realised precisely. 
2.4 The Island

The Island is a small coast in western Turkey where a Greek man named Yanis begins living a self sufficient life in seclusion free from corrupted world. The coast is also known as one of the escape routes to Europe for the immigrants fleeing from mainly Iraq. Soraya, the leading female character is one of the refugees who survives from a sea crash and ends up in The Island. The film gradually turns in to an epic love story which also contains controversial political agenda. Influenced by the real events and real locations, the film predominantly casts none-professional players. My approach to the score is to combine Western and Eastern elements in orchestral genre by using individualistic instrumentation. Examining similar styles e.g. Mark Killian’s score for Traitor (2008) and Harry Gregson-Williams’s score for Prince Of Persia: The Sands Of Time (2010), I have found that both composer successfully amalgamated ethnic sources well in their scores which are primarily centred around the use of high sequencing skills of percussion loops. On the other hand Killian also focuses on sound manipulation to some extend. Eventually I decided to complete the project by using both methods simultaneously. I have composed and produced four cues for The Island; The Refugees, Main Title, The Book and Wound.
2.4.1 Refugees

“Making music with digital samplers and prerecorded samples of world music instruments and phrases is, fundamentally, an art of appropriation” - Lysloff

The Refugees begins with a fatal sea crash caused by coast guards who intend to intercept the boat of immigrants. The scene fades in to an early hours of the day consisting of two parts; a cinematic opening which visually outlines the Mediterranean sea and a deadly ending of drowning immigrants. The musical structure reflects these with an atmospheric beginning with ethnic instruments and a tragic ending with heavy percussion loops. Although the visual materials of intro do not clearly indicate the upcoming trouble, the enigmatic sound texture sets the mood immediately.

Custom sampling and manipulating audio techniques played a key role in producing The Refugees as well as being the source of inspiration for creating new sounds. Key in the selected methods are creating layers of unique sounds and textures by using sequencing techniques. The looped ethnic percussions are used to provide forward motion for the first part. Their distinctive sound texture, especially automated pan and filter cut form the supernatural sense that cannot be created through the traditional method. As seen on figures 3.1 and 3.2 the simple rhythmic pattern on Turkish Kup is altered through various plug-ins. Although the original rhythm was created by simple pulse, the result is much more interesting than the original part especially by using delay plug-in. Similar arrangement can be also seen in many productions such as Call Of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 (2010) by Hans Zimmer (tr8).

Another custom sampled instrument - fretless guitar contributed to generate realistic result. Despite its minimal use in e.g. in bar 6 and 10, its overall impact is distinctively characteristic. During the sampling session, some improvised phrases were also captured for later use. Throughout the editing stage these recordings are fragmented into a small phrases and zoned across the MIDI keyboard to be performed in any section of the score when needed. The audio manipulation on the other hand another is the complimentary process for the integration of sampled sounds into the score. For instance the sound of the Kanun is deviated substantially by use of pitch bend wheel sliding the note from B to G - in bars 6 and 10, so that the significance of the glissando texture serves as an icon for the ‘upcoming trouble’, the attack by the coast guards. For most composers / sound designers, it is an aspiration to create a unique soundscape to be identified with the film. Somehow the glissando effect fulfils this ambition. After all creating a ‘pleasant or at least meaningful sounds’ (Marten, 2010) is the main goal of any modern film music composer.

Certain richness and character of a unique “sampled sound” that were accomplished through using sequencing techniques and changing the psychical structure of the recorded materials such as splitting, frequency and time manipulation. These uniquely manipulated and layered sets of sounds and their tonal/timbral characteristics (rhythm, frequency, dynamics) carry similar means of expression that bring a form of unity to the final sound. Creative use of these effects not only improves the stereo image but also provides a space and motion. Certainly this sort of experimentation exhibits clearly how composer, by means of amalgamation of skills, interacts with technology to accompany to the picture. At this stage the substitution of composing with harmonic and melodic developments with the sound manipulation brings up the central argument about the composer’s identity who manipulates and performs sound obscuring division between composing and producing, and even performing. Could it be interpreted as a gain or a compromise?

Perhaps one of the most substantial problems with electronic scoring is the challenge to simulate the expression and dynamics of acoustic music. Sampling technology contributes to solving this challenge, up to a point, but will eventually be replaced by evolving technologies such as Synful Orchestra which is based on Reconstructive Phrase Modeling technology, RPM.

2.4.2 The Island

“On a very basic level, music is about humans interacting with physical objects in such a way as to create pleasant or at least meaningful sounds” - Alex Martin

Perhaps one of the substantial problems with digital music is to challenge with the expression and interpretation of acoustic music. Although sample libraries offer high quality dynamics and articulations it is still time consuming process and requires lot of practise to produce expressive and powerful sound. In this respect scoring The Main Tittle was the most difficult task to achieve. With the slow pace and long notes, the nuance of the interoperation the MIDI performance become to obvious. For many years sampling technology have been attacked for ‘producing non-controllable sound’ (Ang & Shea, 2001:1). Achieving true human expression is in fact still limited with virtual instruments comparing to real performance, but the current advance sequencing techniques enable users manage sounds intensively. 

The cue initially conveys overall emotional impact of the film based on a utopia; pleasant but not achievable myth that Yanis hopes to live. Coexistence of ‘hope’ and ‘disillusion’ is reflected by the transition of various tonalities suggesting dynamic alteration. The music is structured as double theme and variation; Intro and ABA’B’. Section A mirrors the ‘hope’ and optimism gently. While the beauty of the nature, endless horizon and timeless land summarise the narrative visually throughout The Main Title, the section B evokes the ‘disillusion’ with crescendo which expressing the intensity of high emotions. The dynamic contrast between the sections provided through harmony and orchestration supported with advance sequencing and mixing techniques e.g volume, pitch and tempo automation.   
In the sequencing and mixing, the intension of the music can be enhanced by two ways; focusing on micro details of nuance and overall dynamic balance. My target is first accomplish a good MIDI performance and edit it later for better interpretation by introducing randomness of volume, pitch and tempo. Altering pitch slightly with pitch bend wheel and experimenting with attack and decay of articulations may produce better result. For instance the vibrato on solo saxophone, in bars 11-28, provides realistic nuance which achieved with modulation control (CC1) while crescendo or decrescendo creates dynamic contrast by automating the volume control of main output. As seen on the figure 4 another example for random pitch editing occurs with high strings in bars 19-29 by simply altering the pitch by two percent especially at the beginning and ending of notes. 

Many of these methods expands the boundaries of composer whom becomes to think like a performer and conductor. Considering the studio as an instrument composer spends considerable time on to learning and practising the techniques to overcome the performance related problems. The overall impact of these challenging processes may result with compromise on composer’s creativity depending on how composer deals with them pragmatically and stimulates his imagination simultaneously. Additionally the music industry should develop a sonic formula for innovative musical instrument interface like Eigenharp that performer can physically interact with.
Mobirise
The primary concept of the animation is framed as a combination of ambiguous circumstances with mysterious, magical, funny and tragic nature and accompanied by the fragments of emotions e.g. wonder, frustration, stubbornness, anger, victory and defeat. The score on the other hand is centred around the manipulation of ready made phrases, clusters, dynamics and their integration into the score. The use these creates a palette which is unique to this score and plays inspirational role in developing the harmonic language. Besides they help achieving realistic score as well as emphasising the motion in the animation better.

The solo violin part, in bars 68-71, is a good example for the use of advanced sample instruments and method of orchestral simulation. With this particular solo part I used sample instruments produced by LA scoring strings which reserves various string articulations and bowing techniques simultaneously e.g portemento and vibrato. It also comprises the accompanying scripts such as legato, tuning, trill, delay and humanisation that enabled me to produce expressive and realistic string melodies. In this respect the use of this particular sample instrument worked mainly as a medium to express the musical language of the score based on my previous experience in playing violin.

Nevertheless, the way the pre-recorded samples are superimposed and integrated into the composition varies and requires traditional knowledge of harmony and melody as well as production skills. Digital audio recording and sampling technology have made it easier to employ fragments of sounds, phrases or sound textures in music production. However this is not a new concept and it’s origin goes back to the musique concrète time when the use of sampled sound was seen as an artistic development. Pioneered by Pierre Schaeffer, the musique concrète is a ‘montage’ (Brindle, 1977; pp.100) of live sounds subjected to manipulating or modification to create a composition. Inevitably, making music with audio recordings has currently become more sophisticated with digital samplers since early 1980s. However my favourite profound example of blending orchestra and sampled sound is rooted in concert music of Heiner Goebbels, Suite For Sampler and Orchestra, Chaconne, Cantor Loops. In 2000, Goebbels composed this contemporary piece by putting the 1920s and 30s Jewish Cantor recordings together with acoustic orchestra (tr3). Under the influence of Goebbels, I composed my first piece Wareast in 2004, blending various live recordings with electronic orchestra (tr4). The technique I used in this particular work helped me to construct and develop the composition in and around various acoustic improvisations leaving the acoustic performance mostly untouched. Similarly The Door carries the same principle.  

While the sophisticated sounds are achieved with the sampling technology, it is however criticised for producing non-controllable sounds which cannot be shaped or modified in real-time through controller devices (Ang and Shean, 2000; pp.1). This statement is no longer valid as the sound libraries allow better and more complex use of sound sources bringing new inspirations to the composer and open innovative ways to manipulate and implement (fabricate) these sources. 

2.4.4 Wound

“The ear fancies the tonality of symphony orchestra. On a spectrum analyser, the symphony always shows a gradual high frequency rolloff” - Bob Katz

When humanist values are distracted by the politics it seems moral judgement may easily get damaged. In Wound, the director puts an effort to restore this with an altruistic and sympathetic approach by breaking the boundaries of language and religion. The music transits between diversity of feelings such as delicateness, purity of basic human intuition, pain and desperation by developing the score with harmonic, melodic and rhythmic components and the subtle choice of virtual instrumentation. Therefore the overall result suits the emotional impact of the scene with a good tonal balance. The music and audio work together in response to the visual and it’s dramatic contour simultaneously. Besides the alteration of a rhythmic pattern, hormonic colour, various instrumentation creates a fluidity and realism.
However my challenge is to explore the intimate relation between composing and mastering process with a question; how equalising or compression would effect the emotional perception. A good tonal balance depends on appropriate frequency settings that are directly linked to how we acquire the sound, as Katz (2002; pp.100) defines, ‘pleasant, warm, clear and correct for the song and genre.’ In another words, human emotions can be inflamed or calmed by the property of sound as well as the harmonic language of music. I employed a gentle EQ in mid frequency to support the consonant harmony. The alternate use of harmonic sequence of major and minor chords in D suits the emotions and development of the plot. Underscoring the non-translated dialogue, the eight bar ostinato part in bars 5-12 is sustained with held strings which also works as a counter melody over the celesta and harp. A gentle equaliser applied to celesta provided smooth and natural sound. 

Beginning in bar 23, the following soprano line evokes the pain of the hidden wounds of Soraya and shifts the emotions revealing the long existed suffering. High frequency that rolled off around 12kHz so far is now reset to its original position as the sinister tremolo strings enter. Then the second part of the cue starts with semiquaver arpeggio on harp and strong theme on strings that highlight the drama and movement. In this section, to control the dynamics of the bass drum I applied gentle 2.5:1 compression ratio, and threshold at around -40 dB as well as mellow parallel compression to the final mix. Depending on the experimentation, these compressor settings would make the ‘loud passage softer’ Katz (2004; pp.118) and produce a transparent mix that convey of the characteristics of acoustic music. Then the cue slowly resolves in D major as Sureyya is treated with care. 

One of the problems I had with the underscoring was the overall effect of the soundscape edited at the mastering stage. Although smooth and legato instrumentation worked well with the image, overwritten score distracted the dialogue. Therefore a further volume automation was applied to the master level to supply ‘clear speaking voice range’ (Karling, 2004; pp.168). Although both ethnic instruments and synthesised sounds work well some of the Western instruments may have been replaced with ethnic ones to suit the concept of the scene. 

From the use of some equalising and compression techniques to the fully polished mix, the cue provides a simple evidence for amalgamation of skills, whereas the composer’s identity is fused with production tools. Some film composers tend to avoid these additional skills, and, on the other hand, new generation of composers might discard the value of traditional techniques. Consequently, I believe both method deserve attention in film music.

Mobirise
3. CONCLUSION 

Today, film composers are using the real instruments to support and enhance their synthetic sound. Tomorrow they will possibly not need them at all in order to satisfy even the traditional audience. Does this really matter for listeners who cannot tell the difference between real and synthetic sound? As the technology advances the act of composing becomes more democratic. Some traditionalists might claim this is a huge step back in terms of quality of composing, but we all have the opportunity to embrace the emerging technologies in order to contribute to shape the future of film music.

My findings lead me to the conclusion that, using crossover skills in film music is inspiring but also limiting. Why is it inspiring? It provides endless opportunities to create new sounds through new methods of composition. Why is it limiting? Because of the complexity of sound itself, the current use of sampling technology is not there yet, we need better technology. Interpretation of the sound using available technology has not yet reached the fine detail of acoustic sound. The sonic formula of the acoustic sound of instruments has lasted for centuries, but will today’s digital sound last as long? 

We are currently searching for the digitised sonic formula - but where will this lead?
INDEX

MIDI is a basic electronic ‘Musical Instrument Digital Interface’, a standardised system for encoding and transmitting musically related data between computers/ or instruments. (Morehead, P.D.; 1993; pp.343)

Zimmer, H., August 2003. Interview-Hans Zimmer (and technology), interviewed by Thaddeus Herrmann, at Northernsounds.com.

The definition of today's' computer based Digital Audio Workstation (DAW) is as a setup of a computer which is specifically dedicated to making music.

The sound of thunder and rain are added later on as Pascal Champion requested.

The track 1: ‘There They Go Go Go’ is from the album ‘The Carl Stalling Project - Music From Warner Bros. Cartoons 1936-1958.

The track 2: ‘Cell Bound’ is from the album ‘Tex Avery: Music from the Tex Avery Original Soundtracks.

LA Scoring Strings is a commercial sample library released recently through the Kontakt sample player.

In computer language a script is small extension software that can be used within the main application. This solo violin part is produced by using LA scoring strings, a commercial sample library. which was released through Kontakt sample player.  

For the integrating the ready made phrases into the score successfully, their harmonic and melodic structures need to be analysed to develop the score accordingly. I occasionally used Melodyne software for this process to support my aural skills.

Good examples for use of clusters; John Williams’s When You Wish Upon a Star Medley (From Close Encounters of the Third Kind, 1977) and Krzysztof Penderecki’s"Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima" (From The Shining, 1980)

Quantisation is one of the sequencing techniques to correct the mistakes of a recorded MIDI events by moving and aligning them to a precise setting to achieve accuracy. 

Track 6: Entering The Country, Second part is from Bombers On Board

Track 7: Princes Of Persia, Second part is from Raid On Alamut

Sound materials are created in two ways; through using existing commercial sample libraries / virtual instruments - mainly strings, harp, piano brass and orchestral percussion - and the custom sampled instruments such as Turkish fretless guitar, darbuka (percussion) and ney (wind instrument). My own sampling method played a key role to achieve unique sounds specifically designed for the project.

 The harmonic structure is primarily centred on minor chords; the intro and sections A and A’ are in A minor. Section B is in C minor and section B’ in F# minor.

 The same technique also is applied to bassoon in bars 29- 33 together with CC1, expression control.

 This approach is described by film composer Jeff Rona who suggests “I think of my studio as my instrument and to that extend, no instrumentalist can truly moving an audience if they are not really brilliant on their instruments”.

 Eigenlabs is a new sophisticated electronic instrument with limitless range of sounds.

 This operation completed with parametric equaliser by dipping approximately around 510Hz. The same process is also applied to soprano part with a gentle compression to control the resonance around 500Hz which was arousing out.
4. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books
Lysloff, T.A and Gay, C. (2003) Music and Technoculture. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press
Braun, H-J (2002) Music and Technology in the Twentieth Century USA: The Johns Hopkins University press
Taylor, T. D. (2001) Strange Sounds: Music, Technology and Culture. New York: Routledge.
Karlin, F. (2004) On the track. New York: Routledge.
Bennett, S. (2009) Computer Orchestration; Tips and Tricks. UK: PC Publishing.
Pejrolo, A. (2007) Creative Sequencing Technics For Music Production. Oxford: Focal Press
Stavrou, M.P. (2003) Mixing with your mind. Australia: Flux Research Pty Ltd.
Katz, R.A. (2002 ) Mastering Audio. Canada: Focal Press.
Newquist, H.P. (1989) Music & Technology. New York: Billboard Books Press.
Davis, R. (1999) Complete Guide to Film Scoring. Boston: Berklee Press.
Rothstein, J. (1992) MIDI a comprehensive introduction. Oxford: Calerendon Press.
Warner, T. (2003) Pop Music - technology and Creativity. England: Ashgate.
Leider, C. (2004) Digital Audio Workstation. USA: McGraw-Hill Companies printed.
Russ, M. (2004) Sound Synthesis and Sampling. Massachusetts: Focal Press.
McGuire, S. and Pritts, R. (2008) Audio sampling: a practical guide. Oxford: Focal Press.
Kirk, R. and Hunt, A. (2001) Digital Sound Processing for Music and Multimedia. Oxford: Focal Press.
Katz, R.A. (2002 ) Mastering Audio. Canada: Focal Press.
Dasgupta, S. (1996) Technology and Creativity. New York: Oxford University Press.
JournalS, Articles and Dissertations (all accessed on 25/08/2010)
 Tingen, P., 1998. Craig Armstrong Inner Space. Sound-On-Sound, available at 
http://www.soundonsound.com/sos/jul98/articles/craigarmstrong.html
 Ramshaw, P., 2006. Is Music Production now a Composition Process? London, UK
 Sundstrup, L. (2009) The virtual orchestra: a systematic method of realising music composition through sample-based orchestral simulation. University of Wollongong
 Century, M. (2000) TechnoAesthetic Intermediation paper copy published at 
http://www.nextcentury.ca/Papers/Wien.html

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